Kenyatta University Bachelor of Science (Environmental Health) Geomedicine  Question Paper

Exam Name: Geomedicine 

Course: Bachelor of Science (Environmental Health)

Institution/Board: Kenyatta University

Exam Year:2009

KENYATTA UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS 2009/2010
FIRST SEMESTER EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF
SCIENCE (ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH)

HEH 311:
GEOMEDICINE


DATE: Tuesday, 29th December, 2009

TIME: 11.00 a.m. – 1.00 p.m.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INSTRUCTIONS:
Answer ALL questions in Section One. In Section Two, answer question ONE and any
other TWO.
SECTION ONE
1.
Giving examples, define the following terms:
a)
Medical
geology
(2
marks)
b)
Geophagy
(2
marks)
c)
Minamata
disease
(2
marks)

2.
Explain three main classifications of trace elements; give an example for each










(6 marks)

3.
State the physiological functions of the following trace elements
a)
Iron
b)
Calcium
c)
Zinc
Page 1 of 2


d)
Chromium
e)
Copper
f)
Molybdenum

4.
Exposure to heavy metals presents a serious hazard to children commonly
exposed to in our environment





a)
Give an example of a heavy metal that children are normally exposed to in
our environment
b)
List the symptoms of the exposure to this heavy metal among children
c)
List the long-term effects of this heavy metal on children (5 marks)

SECTION TWO
1.
Outline the pathways through which trace elements enter the body, noting both
natural processes and human activities that alter the elements’ concentrations
along
the
way
(20
marks)

2.
Sketch and explain the essential features of the dose-response curve of the
element fluoride. Discuss the physiological functions of the element in the human
body
(15
marks)

3.
Discuss the applications of peat balneotheraphy that have been established. What
are the potential applications in Kenya with reference to peat occurrences in
Cherangani
Hills
and
the
Aberdares?
(15
marks)

4.
‘Selenium is an intriguing element because of the environmental consequences of
its double-edged behavior’. Describe the clinical manifestations resulting from
varying tissue levels of the element on either side of this duplex. (15 marks)

5.
Give an account of the possible superposing factors on iodine deficiency in the
aetiology of goiter and cretinism in Kenya


(15 marks)

Page 2 of 2



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