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Discuss the Cultural and Economic Factors that Control Agricultural Distribution


Discuss the Cultural and Economic Factors that Control Agricultural Distribution



Socia-cultural and economic factors also play a crucial role in determining the type, intensity and modernization of agriculture.
The key socio- economic factors are:

- Cultural and religious beliefs: The most direct consequence of cultural and
religious beliefs in agriculture is in the field of animal husbandry. For example,
among the pastoralists such as the Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania, the number of
cattle possessed by an individual or family determines their status and prestige
within the tribe. As such pastoralists adhere to quantity rather than to quality.
Moslems will not engage in pig farming because they consider the pig an unclean
animal. In other places farmers retain an animistic view of natural events. Crop
yields are thought to be the work of gods and droughts and other natural hazards
are accepted. Agriculture in such places remains backward.

- LAND TENURE: There are three types of land tenure namely:- tenancy; owner-
occupier and communal ownership. Under tenancy type of ownership, a farmer
rents the piece of land that he cultivates. Tenancy takes tow forms namely cash
tenancy and sharecropping. Cash tenancy is when a farmer gives as much as 80
per cent of their income or a fixed pre-arranged rent to the landowner.
Sharecropping on the other hand is when the farmer gives part of his harvest to
the landowner as a payment. Owner-occupier mean that the farmer owns the land
he cultivates and he most likely has title deed for the land. Communal ownership
implies that the land belongs to the community, and that as long as one is a
member of the community, he has every right to the land.

Any type of ownership that does not guarantee security of tenure discourages
agricultural development. Farmers cannot adopt green revolution farming
technologies (such fertilizers, improved seeds, cross breed animals, pesticides and
herbicides) or practice sustainable farming techniques on farms that do not fully
belong to them. For example nearly all the grazing land in East Africa is
commonly owned. As there are restrictions upon the number of animals that can
be grazed, the capacity of the land more often than not over-stretched. Most often
than not land degradation sets in and within a short time the affected land begins
to show signs of desertification as is the use in Central East, Northern Africa for

- Land subdivision and fragmentation: Repeated subdivision resulting from
inheritance practices and fragmentation of land holdings affects agriculture
adversely. Indeed, as population grows, land holdings continually become
smaller and smaller, and more fragmented. For example, in the densely settled
parts of East Africa, average farm size equals to or is less than 2 ha, a problem
attributed to land subdivision. These farms are not only small but also
fragmented and scattered and sometimes in distant different areas. While the
small nature of the farms hinders mechanization, fragmentation is time

- Transport: Good transport conditions are an essential prerequisite to
agricultural development. Transportation network opens up and links places,
enabling the movement of people and goods from one place to another.
Regions that are acceptable and well connected are more developed
agriculture-wise and are more intensively used than those that are not A well
established and efficient transport network is also conducive for the marketing
of the bulky and highly perishable agricultural produce such as milk and fresh

- Capital: Agriculture is a capital demanding exercise. Unless one has sufficient
resources, they cannot engage in successful agriculture. One needs to have
land on which farming will be practiced; labour to execute farm operations; a
steady and reasonably high income to purchase farm inputs and to finance
farm-work. As such, farmers who lack sufficient capital usually practice
subsistence farming while the progressive and resource-advantaged farmers
undertake commercial agriculture.
Titany answered the question on January 18, 2022 at 05:38

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