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Describe the pre-colonial and colonial industrialization process


Describe the pre-colonial and colonial industrialization process



Traditionally industrialization in its broad sense includes manufacturing, mining, construction and utilities such as electricity, water and gas among others. But further, the definition of industrialization during the latter years of the 20th century expanded to refer to a process of development that is balanced and sustained as far as the economic as well as socio-political realms of any society are concerned. Colonial rule came to Africa as alien rule superimposed from outside mainly in the latter half of the 19th century and established in the midst of on-going (perhaps what were naturally evolving) cultures. It was exercised either directly or indirectly by predominantly European administrators, colonial companies, among other imperial establishments and white settler populations.
In the colonial economy the interest of the colonizing power and its local agents was to extract raw materials partly for purposes of feeding the industrial machine in Europe as well as raising revenue from the native populations, exploring markets for the products within the colonial economy and most importantly exploiting cheap labour for industrial purposes from the native population.
During the colonial era manufacturing in the continent was generally at the handicraft and small scale levels. In some colonies this was supplemented by some relatively complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local consumption at the time focusing on food, fibre and wood processing and metal works in order to meet the needs fast growing urban populations.
During the colonial era, natural resources were selected and exploited with a view to meeting the needs of the industries in Western Europe. To this end, infrastructure, particularly all-weather roads and rail roads were designed and built with the aim of facilitating the shipment of minerals and agricultural communities from the hinterland to the seaports for purposes of further shipment overseas.
Other components of the colonial economy such as banking and communication were mainly established to facilitate this end.
At independence, the African economy inherited an industrial setting characterized by a traditional modern dichotomy. The traditional industrial setting is one that had been carried on from the precolonial times, survived the colonial economies and largely covered production and service activities related to basic household and agricultural needs at a traditional handicraft level by artisans blacksmiths, porters, carpenters, carvers and weavers. This traditional industrial setting was practically based on human and animal power and used mainly local resources in addition to metal scrapes and wastes materials. On the other side of the dichotomy was the modern industrial setting which involved imported technology, machinery, equipment materials and production systems.
francis1897 answered the question on January 12, 2023 at 12:46

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