What is industrialization?


What is industrialization?


Industrialization was an important event in the economic and technological history of the world and Kenya in particular. It helped to reshape the patterns of life for men and women, first in Britain, then Europe, America and later in Kenya. It increased the scale of production and hence it brought about the factory system which in turn forced many people to migrate from the rural to cities. In the cities men and women had to learn new ways of life, how to cope with work in the factories and live in slums. It led to class consciousness, as men and women began seeing themselves as part of a class with interests of its own in opposition to the other classes.
Industrialization started with the introduction of new technologies in making textiles, mining coal, smelting pig iron and using steam between 1750-1850.
Industrialization - The process of producing goods from raw materials in factories. It is about running a large factory or industrial economy. Machines begun to be used to do work as industries grew rapidly.
Industrialization led to growth of cities and huge population. Cities grew in size and number once the steam engine made it practical to bring together large concentrations of men, women and children to work in factories.
Workers were more rapidly available in cities, attracted large numbers in the hope (false) of finding steady work at higher wages than those paid to agricultural labourers in 1850s Europe.
The overcrowded cities lacked adequate amenities, a menace to the health of those who lived within them. Cholera, typhus and tuberculosis were natural predators in areas without adequate sewerage facilities and fresh water.
In the ten years between 1831-1841 London’s population grew by 130,000, Manchester by 70,000, Paris by 120,000 between 1841-1846 while Berlin had a large population by 1848 having increased by 180,000 since 1815 (Burns, Lemer and Mecham, 1980:647).
Standards of living diminished and there was instability and unemployment hence poor salaries and benefits.
Routine work - To function efficiently, a factory demanded that all employees began and ended work at the same time yet most workers could not tell time and fewer possessed clock. None was accustomed to the relentless pace of the machine.
Poor housing - In the new manufacturing centres, rows of tiny houses, located close by smoking factories were built back to back, thereby eliminating any cross-ventilation or space for garden houses were poorly built, old buildings felt into disrepair while new houses decayed quickly. Crowding was common place. Family of 8 lived in 2 or 3 rooms.
Women - the life of working class wives and mothers was hard. Lack of cheap contraceptive devices and a belief that these devices were immoral helped to keep women pregnant through most of their child bearing years endangering their general health with a weekly wage from their husbands, wives were expected to house, feed and clothe the family on the little income. They also worked hence they had less time to accomplish the household tasks.
jerop5614 answered the question on January 9, 2019 at 05:36

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