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State and discuss the types of counseling


State and discuss the types of counseling



1) Individual counseling/therapy
This is a professional therapeutic relationship between the counselor and the client where the counselor helps the client to search him/herself, discover him/her make decisions. Individual therapy is commonly used than group counseling. Some of the problems addressed in individual counseling include relationship problems, school work, family related problems, self concept, making educational choices, career counselling, and peer relationship among other issues(Mwamwenda 1995).

2) Group counseling/therapy
This involves multiple numbers of persons to get her or simultaneously. Usually the clients have similar problems and during group discussions, they are helped to search, discover themselves and also make decisions sensibly. Group counseling involves a group of people working together under the leadership of a counselor with the o objective of solving personal and interpersonal problems. Through group counseling is client realizes he/she is not the only person undergoing a particular problem this provides psychological relief and reassurance that the problem is surmountable. In group counseling, as clients interact they are able to understand themselves better, but also to understand others better. Group counseling reflects what holds true inn real life as observed in different grouping such as families, schools, clubs, ethnic and national groups (Mwamwenda 1995).

3) Facilitative counseling
It is sometimes referred to as remedial or adjustive counseling. During the counseling process the client is helped to clarify a concern, then through self understanding and acceptance to devise a plan of action to work or act on the concern in a responsible manner. For example: Improving of examination grades, identifying individual strengths, Planning career/academic options, Getting along with others.
This type of counseling helps clients clarify their problems, take action and hence grow in life or move well about their ambitions with courage and confidence.

4) Preventive counseling
This is an approach where by the client is helped to be aware of a problem before he/she experiences it. For example: offering sex education to a client can prevent pregnancy; sexually transmitted diseases; minimize chances of contracting HIV/AIDS. Giving awareness of drugs on health can help clients abstain from substance/drug abuse. This type of counseling helps clients make proper decisions since they are aware of out comes of their actions. It also involves clients
being guided on how to avoid a specific problem/concern. This type of counseling can be done as an individual or group counseling.

5) Developmental counseling
This type of counseling can be done as group or individual counseling process. It helps individuals achieve positive personal growth and adjustment through one’s life. It is not always problem oriented but focuses on helping the individual learn and understand them selves better and therefore adjust to various situations in life at every stage of development. This helps them become responsible for their choices in life. It is a very useful counseling mode in families and school situations.

6) Crisis counseling
A crisis is an acute problem or when there is a dangerous situation. It involves panic, confusion or frustration of client and therefore he/she becomes unable to use the methods of coping with the problem effectively or gives up altogether. The client’s self control here is affected. Examples of crisis situations involve: loss of loved one/ property, divorce, expulsion from school, loss of job/retrenchment, rape, accident, robbery, kidnap, land clashes, e.t.c. It can be given to an individual or group.

7) Marriage Counseling
Marriage is an institution ordained by God. There are those who have the vocation of celibacy in order that they might serve God better. However, marriage is the vocation for the majority of people since this is the way God has chosen to perpetrate the human race. Marriage is the oldest human institution in history. In marriage counseling the family relationship must be given priority as this sets the foundations for the children who are born in that marriage or who will be adopted in that family. Family members’ relationship is a very good foundation for child development.

8) Pre-marital counseling
There are some issues that a couple considering marriage need to look at before their marriage. Our traditional cultures provided some guidance for people who were planning to marry. One wishes that things were always easy for those getting into marriage. There designated people in the community or family who are charged with the responsibility to instruct the couple on expectations and duties of marriage. These expectations and duties were taught during the rites of passage especially initiation. By the wedding day, the bride and the bridegroom were adequately prepared for the challenges and roles in marriage. However, to fulfill the expectations and these duties become very challenging especially soon the arrival of new born is experienced. That is, practicing what was learnt becomes a real challenge due to social behavior of the couple and each individual’s expectation of the partner.
However, no one should hide from the intending to marry couples, the type of life that lies ahead of them ;life that will need understanding of each other, bearing each other’s misfortunes and bad deeds. That is, there will be more conflicts than joy due to others who will come into their life.

9) Child and Adolescent Counselling
Adolescents represent an important segment of the society, particularly in the developing countries where they form the bulk of the population. It is important to appreciate that adolescence can be a confusing and stressful period. It is a period when many physical and emotional changes take place and such it is a period when those concerned become anxious and
ask a lot of questions. It can however be made a very exiting period if the adolescent is empowered with the knowledge and skills required to cope with challenges adequately. This will enable the individual to make sound decisions and safe choices about life Adolescence is marked by changes that are relatively brief and not typically associated with long- term adjustment problems (Graber&Brooks-Gunn,1996;Steinberg,1999).
francis1897 answered the question on March 17, 2023 at 07:37

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