Components of Human Resource Planning


Date Posted: 8/17/2018 6:52:25 AM

Posted By: Faimus  Membership Level: Silver  Total Points: 962

Human resource planning refers to the process of analysing an organisation's human resource needs under changing conditions and developing the necessary activities to satisfy the needs. Human resource planning is a key responsibility in an organization. This is because human resource planning is the process by which an organization moves from the current manpower position to the desired manpower position so as to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Human resource planning forecasts the right number and type of staff an organisation will hire, maintain, develop and promote per period. In addition, it provides adequate information on the human profile in an organization.

Human resource planning is important to an organization in several ways. Human resource planning is aimed at achieving various objectives in any organization. These include;recruiting and retaining personnel in terms of quality and quantity, minimizing employee turnover and filling up the consequent vacancies, making the best use of human resource and developing the staff on clear career paths. Proper human resource planning will help the management in the following ways: to anticipate shortages and surpluses, develop plans for recruitment, promotion, retirement and separation, identify replacements and backups especially in the managerial positions and integrate employee matters. A good human resource profile should entail the following details: the number of positions available, quality of staff required, policies and procedures for training and developing staff, predetermined compensation rates and plans for selection both internal and external. The components of human resource planning are explained in detail below.

The first component is job analysis and design. Job analysis can be described in simple terms as analysis of a job in order to determine the human resource requirements. It can also be described as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job

in terms of features they fulfill, results they are expected to achieve and the major tasks to be performed. Job analysis in itself comprises of two components. These are job description and specification. Job description refers to an organized factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It is descriptive in nature and contains record of pertinent job details such as the department or section, reporting line, position, purpose of job and the tasks and responsibilities. Job specification on the other hand, refers to a statement of acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a given job effectively such as the educational background, professional or technical training, experience, personality qualities and any other physical requirements. Job specification is the standard against which the applicant is compared in every step of recruitment and selection while job description is the standard against which the comparison is made.

Job design is basically the beginning point of procurement. It is the stage where specific units of responsibility designated as jobs are set up. Performance of these jobs is what leads to the accomplishment of the goals and objectives of the organization. However, excessive specialization and concentration upon technical efficiency leads to reduced motivation for the people executing the narrow tasks. Great attention and sufficient time should therefore be taken when the jobs are designated to avoid underutilization of the skills of the personnel to whom the responsibilities are given. There are various factors influencing the job design. They include; the proven values of specialization such as simplification of the task of job training; changing technology which may be applicable where new technology merges tasks that would have been previously been allocated to a number of people or where use of technology replaces human labour; abilities of the current personnel which requires that they should people within the organization who are able to fill in the new jobs created and is therefore an internal source of employees; available supply of potential employees which serves as an external source of employees, interaction requirement among jobs and the psychological and social needs of the employees that can be fulfilled by the job.

The second component is work force analysis. Work force analysis refers to the process of identifying the skills of the current personnel with the aim of finding if the work force can accomplish the tasks in the organization. Any deficiency detected can be corrected through training and/or recruitment. This analysis includes details such as personal history of the employee such as time and place of the year, age marital status; employees level of education training and job experience; salary and job history where the employee gives information on the places they have worked formally, for how long and their reasons for leaving their former places of work; any special qualifications such as knowledge of foreign languages; special qualities such as possession of a given skill or a given ability such eloquence in speech or persuasiveness; company data such as retirement plans and benefits and special preferences such as geographic conditions, health and special assignments.

The third and final component is work load analysis. Work load analysis refers to the process of determining the number of people required to perform a particular job in terms of both quality and quantity. This analysis is important in the following ways. This analysis enables a organization to predict the future work load requirements in the organization. This helps the organization in putting up measures in place in order to meet those requirements at the required time. Work load analysis also gives the number and type of employees required for the work load ensuring that the organization gets employee with the required qualifications to fill the vacancies. Knowing the number of employees require minimizes employee surpluses and shortages. Furthermore, this analysis ensures that the work done reflects the objectives of the organization which ensures achievement of the goals of the organization and hence expansion and growth of the organization. In addition, this analysis enables the organization to come up with a method of expressing the work results such as the units produced, number of customer calls and number of vouchers processed and a method of determining man power input such as man day or man hour.

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