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Evolution of Cellular Mobile Technologies


Date Posted: 11/19/2017 12:04:08 PM

Posted By: snipper  Membership Level: Gold  Total Points: 1572

Evolution of Cellular Mobile Technologies

Mobile wireless technologies is a system used by cellular telephone manufacturers and service providers to classify wireless communication into several generations, Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non–backward compatible transmission recent past mobile wireless technologies have undergone technology evolution from 0G TO 4G. More research is being carried purposely to introduce a newer shift with more efficiency and advanced functionalities and capabilities compared to the previous.

1. Zero generation (0G)
This is the generation which came before cell phones mobile telephony technology. They were introduced before the first generation of cellular telephones, therefore labeled zero generation systems. Such technologies include radio telephones mostly used in cars. Mobile radio telephone systems came before modern cellular mobile telephony technology.

2. First generation (1G)
The first commercially automated cellular network (1G) was launched in the year 1979 in Japan.
This forms the first generation of cell phones, labeled as analog cell phones. It was used for voice communications and were cordless.
This phase of technology used a technology called Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS).
Advanced Mobile Phone System was frequency modulated and used frequency division multiple access (FDMA).
The difference between the first and previous technology of mobile phones was the use of multiple cell sites, and the ability to transfer calls from one site to the next as the user traveled between cells during a conversation.

3. Second generation (2G)
The second generation wireless mobile communication system was introduced in the 1980s.This generation was very imperative since it forms the start of digital cellular technology.
Makes use of digital signals for voice transmission, has a higher bandwidth (30-200 KHz).and above all supports services such as short message services (SMS), picture messages and multimedia message services (MMS).
SMS text messaging became possible and widely used, initially supported by Global System

for Mobile Communication (GSM) networks and eventually on all digital networks. Use of SMS today is a communication mostly preferred by the youths. Also many advanced markets the general public prefers sending text messages rather than placing voice calls.
The second generation introduction saw many communication benefits and among them are, Digital signals require to consume less battery power, so it helps mobile batteries to last long. Digital coding improves the voice clarity and reduces noise in the line while conversing, therefore interruptions in are widely reduced. Digital signals are considered environment-friendly.
Digital encryption has provided secrecy and safety to the data and voice calls, therefore, security is improved. Security is a key factor which has been the main concern to every cellular technology user.

4. 2.5 generation (2.5G.)
This cellular wireless technology was developed after the 2G and before the 3G.this technology was not popular among the general public as it saw fewer mainly used GPRS (General Packet Radio Service). GPRS could provide data rates and can also be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.

5. 2.75 generation (2.75G)
This technology is basically labeled as the EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) .some advantages include, it allows the clear and fast transmission of data and information speed (up to 384kbit/s)
Generally, the spread of and the use of 2G phones became more widespread and people began to use mobile phones in their day to day lives, this led to high demand for data services (example, access to the internet) and greater data speeds. Therefore this saw a need to introduce a better performance cellular technology and therefore 3G was introduced to cater for such demands.

6. Third generation (3G)
This generation of wireless mobile communication technology system was introduced in the year 2000.
The objective is to offer increased data rates (from 144kbps to384kbps) in wide coverage areas and 2Mbps in local coverage areas.
This technology is very improved compared to 1G,2G, along with voice communication it includes data services, access to television/videos, Web browsing, e-mail, video conferencing, paging, fax and navigational maps. It has a high bandwidth (of 15-20MHz) used for high-speed internet, video chatting.
3G technology revolution saw a great transformation in the industry for the first time, 3G technology enabled media streaming of radio and even television content.
Later other versions were introduced as 3G improvement these are, 3.5G and 3.75G but not widely popular.

7. Fourth generation (4G)
This technology was introduced after the third generation. The main objective of 4G technology was to provide high speed, high quality, high capacity, security and low-cost services for voice and data services, multimedia and internet over internet protocol.
4G is a great technology in that it has optimized data with high-speed improvement, more bandwidth, high-quality video and audio streaming over end to end Internet Protocol
One of the main ways in which 4G differ from 3G was by doing away with circuit switching, instead of employing an all internet protocol network.
Another advantage of 4G is that, apart from usual voice and other services of 3G technology, 4G provides mobile broadband Internet access, example to laptops with wireless modems, smartphones, and to other mobile devices.
Most remarkable current applications of 4G, include amended mobile web access, internet protocol(IP) telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile television, video conferencing, 3D(dimension) television, and cloud computing.

8. Fifth generation (5G)
This is the generation which is under development. Majorly will be an improvement from the 4G technology.
The following are some characteristics and requirements expected to be attached with the release of the 5G as defined by Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance.
Data rates of several tens of Mb/s should be supported for tens of thousands of users, several hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections to be supported for massive sensor deployments among others.
This alliance feels that 5G should be introduced out by 2020 to meet business and consumer demands.
Major improvements expected on 5G are,
Provide large broadcasting of data in Gigabit, use different modulation techniques and error-control techniques, provides hundreds of channels without streaming, technology support for virtual network, offers bi-directional bandwidth and less traffic among others.

Cellular mobile technology has improved over the years to meet different consumer requirements. This has influenced greatly day to day communication way of lives.

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