Environmental planning and management concepts in environmental conservation

  

Date Posted: 1/26/2019 3:07:43 AM

Posted By: jim items  Membership Level: Gold  Total Points: 1572


In oneself understanding, the term environment is understood as the biological and physical systems that surround man and supports his or her basic life. Environment can be either referred to as macro or micro environment and to some extent biotic (living) and a biotic (non living). This may include: air, water, Soil, buildings, road or the different forms of energy that surrounds man. This is simplified into the following spheres: atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, Eco-sphere and the biosphere.

For environment to be said it is in a win-win situation with the society and the natural environment itself, well planned environmental management has to be accomplished. This brings about the global issue on environmental management and planning.

The main aim of environmental planning is to ensure that the society wins environment by being able to use the area in productive ways and the environment also wins the society by being able to sustain itself for future generations.

These two concepts of environmental conservation are discussed in details as follows:
a)Environmental planning.
This mainly involves the process of evaluating how economic, political, governing and social factors are or have been affecting the natural environment while considering development.
Environmental planning helps in bridging where we are and where we want to go in terms of environmental management. This also helps the environmental managers in determining what to do, how to do it, when to do and who to do it. This is all about god environmental planning.

Environmental planning has several characteristics;
1. It is a continuous process. This means that environmental planning has no end as it is done now and then due to the arising problems day in day out such as droughts, earthquakes, famine e.t.c.
2. It is an intellectual process. This is to say that environmental planning requires use of mental activity where the environmental

manager needs to put into practice creative thinking, imagination and sound judgments during the environmental planning process.
3. It requires decision making and choice. This is because there are so many alternatives in environmental management but only the best of all should be chosen for an effective environmental planning. This makes decision making an integral part of planning.
4. It is flexible in that environment is dynamic thus unpredictable in nature due to its ever changing circumstances. As a result, the original plan of action must be revised and updated to make it more practical.
5. Environmental planning is goal oriented. This means that the planning should be done with a specific aim/objective or a purpose. For example, planning on how to reduce green houses emitted into the environment. Due to this environmental planning provides sense of direction to various activities.
6. Environmental planning is looking ahead. This is to mean that it is done for the future thus resulting in forecasting or a mental predisposition for things to happen in future.
7. Environmental planning is also pervasive where it is required in all levels of management and in all departments of enterprise.
8. Environmental planning is designed for efficiency. This means that it leads to accomplishment of objectives at the minimum possible cost.

For a successful environmental planning, three main components are prioritized. These are: The current status of the natural environment in terms of its features, uses and the natural resources found. The second one is the vision where one sets goals and measurable objectives for a successful environmental management.

b)Environmental management.
This is the second main concept that should be understood by environmental managers. It involves the act of getting people together to accomplish the desired objectives and goals. The main basic functions of environmental management are :
-Organizing.
-Planning.
-Staffing.
-Monitoring and controlling.
-Directing and leading.
Environmental management can be achieved through the following levels; low-level management which includes the supervisors and the team builders, middle management and the senior management which is simply known to be the top management.

Environmental management is only successful after following and adhering several principles of management as well. These principles may include; Scalar chain, Initiative, esprit de corps, order, stability of tenure of personnel, equity, centralization, authority, discipline, unity of command, division of work and remuneration.

The three levels of management differ in terms of their characteristics. The top levels of management have decisions that are generally of a long term nature, they have to be aware of external factors and require an extensive knowledge of management skills and roles. They are also responsible for strategic decisions, are executive in nature, their decisions are made using analytic and participative process and they have to chalk out the plan and see the plan to be effective in future. The middle level of management is responsible in carrying out the decisions made by top level management and they have a specialized good understanding in the managerial tasks. The last level of management is just ensures that the decisions and plans taken by other levels of management are accomplished as stipulated in the planning process.

The low level managers’ choices and decisions made only exist for short terms.
In conclusion with the following concepts of environmental planning and management, our environment can be easily monitored and prevent the natural disasters arising from the environmental degradation currently experienced in our country and globally as well.


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