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How to write presentable and acceptable research proposal


Date Posted: 2/23/2018 10:26:00 AM

Posted By: Jonmhumble  Membership Level: Gold  Total Points: 2362

Most students in campus suggest that the most tiresome and hard activity is writing project proposals. It is not that it is hard but it is because they only mix up their work and are not ready to carry out a research in their area of study or they carry out a complicated project. Here are the guidelines on how to write a project proposal.

The project proposal is composed of preliminary pages which entails declaration, approval, dedication, acknowledgement, abstract and the table of contents. It is also composed of three chapters: Chapter one,chapter two and chapter three. Chapter one is composed of introduction, statement of the problem, study objectives, study questions, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations and the assumptions of the study.

Before starting the introduction one usually comes up with a topic. The topic selected should have both dependent variable and independent variables, should captive the interest of the researcher, should be the one that makes contribution to the study, it should be clear and focused. The topic that you select should be under your area of study, that topic should not be complicated and should have enough resources so as you don't have a problem in reviewing your literature.

In the introduction we have the background of the study whereby one looks critically at the objectives and finds out approaches to these objectives starting with globally, then to African continent and end with the local approaches.

Statement of the problem is the summary of the background of the study with respect to independent variables and dependent variable and then explain the need for the study. One should support this statement with utmost three citations which cover utmost three paragraphs.

In the study objectives we have the general objectives and the specific objectives. The study questions are the study objectives in

question form. The significance of the study shows those who may benefit from the study. This is where one values the study. Limitations are the barriers and one finds out those barriers and provides the mitigation. Delimitation is brought about the limits that the researcher provides which can be in form of time or geographical area. This chapter ends up with the assumptions of the study. The assumptions must be equal to the study objectives.

Chapter two is composed of literature review which entails introduction, subheadings from the themes or the objectives, theories related to the study and also the conceptual framework. Introduction outlines what is composed in chapter two. The subheadings should have a minimum of three words. Literature can be organised according to selected themes or the study objectives. Sources of literature include: journals, financial magazines, Kenya gazette, commission documents, international bodies such as UNESCO and WHO, research projects. The literature will cover international, regional, national and local areas. The conceptual framework can be represented through diagram or mathematical model.

Chapter three is composed of research design and methodology which entails introduction, study design,sampling frame, study population, study instruments, validity, reliability data collection techniques, data analysis techniques logistics and ethical issues. Introduction outlines what is covered in the chapter. In the study design one explains the strength of the design giving the citations. Sampling frame is the locality of the study. In sampling frame one provides the characteristics of the locality, who the respondents are and also justify existence of the said problem in that area using citations. The study population can be institutions or respondents. Here one clearly explains the characteristics of the population giving the citations. Sample size I the number from the total population that is going to be investigated. Here one provides a matrix table which containing all the population, target population and the selected population. At least two study instruments must be used and questionnaires and interview schedules are mainly used. For the research tools one must give the strength of the tool,the data it will collect, to whom it is administered (why it is administered to that respondent) and where it is appendixed. Validity is the extent to measure the concept the tool measures. By the use of of correct technical terms, by consulting the relevant professionals and the guidelines of the supervisor, this will enhance the concept validity of the research tools to measure the concept s intended to measure. For the reliability, a tool is said to be reliable when it brings back the same results however the number it is administered.

In the data collection techniques one shows how the data was was collected, to whom administering started and giving a reason. The time limit is also given. In data analysis techniques one explain how the qualitative data will be analysed. In logistics, research permit should be provided, tools for research must be ready,the means of transport should be ready and the contacts at the field must be provided two day in advance. Ethical issues involves seeking consent from the respondents before engaging them, using of persuasive language, assuring the respondent's anonymity of the information provided, follow the protocol in the institutions and dressing as the environmental circumstances.
Eventually project proposal ends with the references and the appendices. The first appendix gives the work plan whereby one draws a table that has got the activity and the time limit. The second appendix shows the budget of the study. The third appendix is of the letter of transmission which entail: the name of the researcher, the purpose of the letter, assurance to the respondent that whatever data is given will be confidential and thanking in advance. Last one signs, write his or her name and the contacts. The fourth appendix entails the questionnaire ana the last appendix entails the interview schedules.

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