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History of Education Short Notes


Date Posted: 10/18/2017 6:37:06 AM

Posted By: collinsmuus  Membership Level: Gold  Total Points: 1002

This resource contains short notes of History of Education start from educational commissions in Kenya after independence


Negative Impacts/Failures of the Ominde Commission

• Universal primary education was not implemented until 1974
• It neglected industrial and technical education and therefore the workers produced lacked skills
• Due to expansion of secondary schools, a lot of unemployed youth were produced, who were ready for white collar jobs which were not available
• The government was unable to control and plan for the growth of ‘Harambee Schools.’ This resulted to more ‘Harambee Schools’ than government schools and therefore degrading the quality of education since many Harambee schools had poor quality facilities or no facilities at all.

BESSAY REPORT - 1972(A Study of Curriculum Development in Kenya)

NB: Some books call it Bessy Report.

Roles of the Bessay Commission

? To evaluate the Kenyan curriculum, except university, and determine whether it was relevant to the country’s needs.
? To make recommendations on training, supply and retention of teachers so as to meet the needs of the curriculum.
? To define the roles of Kenya Institute of Education (KIE), University’s Faculty of Education and the inspectorate arm of the Ministry of Education.
? To advise on the structure of the education system
Recommendations of the Bessay Commision
? It recommended that primary school curriculum to be broadened such that school leavers can be absorbed into the economy and be adaptable and resourceful
? It recommended that Form 1 and 2 students to follow a common curriculum but personal guided choice of subjects to be introduced in Form 3 and 4.

Impacts of the Bessay Report

• The ministry of Education was given the mandate to train ECDE teachers
• Primary school teachers were expected to train for two years so as to improve the quality of teachers.
• Primary school curriculum was broadened such that school leavers could be absorbed into the economy and be adaptable and resourceful
• Close external moderation

of exams was done so as to strengthen teacher training.
• Learners were allowed to choose subjects from Form 2 and 3 and a common curriculum to be followed for Form 1 and 2
• Inspectors were to provide proper guidance to schools and ensure exchange of ideas among schools.
• The inspectorate was to oversee curriculum implementation and establish strong links with KIE.

THE GACHATHI REPORT – 1976 (The National Commission On Educational Objectives And Policies)

Roles of the Gachathi Report

? To redefine Kenyan Educational policies and objectives, focusing mainly on national unity and the economic, social and cultural aspirations of the people of Kenya.
? To suggest methods and means by which the objectives and policies could be achieved and implemented.
Recommendations of the Gachathi Report
? It recommended that mother tongue be used as a medium of instruction in lower primary classes.
? It recommended that English to be taught as a subject from class one.
? It recommended for reconstruction of the education system to 9-4-2-3 ( 9 years primary education, 4 years secondary education, 2 years high secondary education and 3 years university education.)
? It proposed free primary education for upper primary school.
? It recommended Kiswahili to be made a compulsory and examinable subject.
? It recommended for an upgrade in teaching of sciences, mathematics and vocational subjects.
? It recommended closer supervision of ‘Harambee schools’ by the governments.
? It recommended that national unity should be promoted at all levels of education.
? It suggested continuous assessment to be used as a mode of evaluation.
? It proposed practical education for self reliance to be enhanced.

Impacts of The Gachathi Report.

• It led to the government supporting the ‘Harambee schools’, which were previously supported by the community.
• It led to the establishment of the National Center for Early Childhood Education(NACECE) at the KIE

THE MACKAY REPORT – 1981(The Presidential Working Party on Establishment of the Second University in Kenya)

Recommendations of the Mackay Report

? It recommended that post secondary training institutions to be developed and expanded so as to be able to handle the large number expected to join them after failing to get university admissions.
? it recommended that the Commission of Higher Education to be established and to co-ordinate universities and post secondary institutions

The Mackay report achieved the following:
• It led to removal of advanced (A)level of secondary education and expansion of other post secondary institutions.
• It led to the introduction of 8-4-4 system of education which emphasized on pro-vocational and technical skills.
• It led to establishment of the second public university, Moi University, which was to be a university of science, technology and development.

THE KAMUNGE REPORT -1988 (The Presidential Working Party on Education And Manpower For the Next Decade And Beyond)

Roles of the Kamunge Report

? To review the national education and training policy for the decade and beyond.
? To seek ways in which cost sharing as a financing strategy could be implemented in the education sector.
? To focus on improving the quality and relevance of education in Kenya.

Recommendations of the Kamunge Report

? It recommended that cost sharing to be between the government, parents and the communities
? It recommended that education should foster national unity and promote positive attitudes and consciousness towards other countries.
? It recommended that education should facilitate the development of the individuals’ potential by equipping the individual with the knowledge, skills and expertise to enable services in national development.
? It recommended that education should promote social justice and morality
? It recommended that there should be development of gifted, talented and physically challenged persons through education.
? It recommended that schools should offer guidance and counseling services, environmental education and vocational technical education.
? It recommended the establishment of centres for excellence in training, research, technology and arts.

KOECH REPORT – 1999 (The Commission of Inquiry Into The Education System And Training: Totally Integrated Quality Education And Training)

Roles of the Koech Report

? To prepare the Kenyan society to face the challenges of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium through education and training.

Recommendations of the Koech Report

? It recommended expansion of basic education from 8 to 12.
? It recommended compulsory basic education.
? It recommended reduction of curriculum content to be manageable by learners and teachers at all levels.
? It recommended unit learning approach and credit accumulation in post secondary education to facilitate points of exit and re-entry as appropriate.
? It recommended expansion of opportunities in post secondary education so that learners can have flexibility when pursuing further studies.
? It recommended introduction of boarding schools in arid and semi-arid areas.
? It recommended that guidance and counseling in education and training institutes to be offered by professionally trained mature members.

FREE PRIMARY EDUCATION (1964, 1974, 1979 & 2003)

Free primary education was recommended by the Ominde Report (1964). However, it was no implemented until 1974, when an attempt was made.
In 1974, free primary education was implemented as from class1 – 4, then it would be extended to the rest. The implementation was not done fully due to the following challenges:
1. Inadequate planning
2. Over enrolment of children in schools
3. Teachers were overloaded
4. Inadequate funding
5. Overage children started attending school and there were no plans to meet their special needs.
6. Not everything was free, e.g. cost of uniform, desks and general upkeep had to be met.
NB: Due to the high cost of free education, the government could not sustain it.
Another attempt to implement free primary education was done in 1979. However, it met similar challenges as in 1974 and therefore it was not sustained.
In 2003, the NARC government implemented free primary education. This program faced the following problems:
1. Expenses in financing the expanded education
2. Over enrolment
3. Teachers were overloaded
4. Misconceptions – e.g some parent though that all costs were catered for, including buying of uniforms.
5. Inadequate teaching learning resources.
6. Enrolment of overage learners
7. Some parents had to keep their children at home so as for them to attain six years of age so as to join free primary education since they could not afford pre-school education which was not free.
The NARC government had to intervene to solve the above problems so as to sustain free education. These intervention measures include:
? It formed a budgetary plan for the project.
? School administrators were trained to manage the free primary education development funds
? The government provided teaching learning resources, e.g. textbooks, etc
? It was timely – it was implemented at a time when universal primary education was one of millennium goals and therefore it received international moral support.
? The president sensitized the parents on their role in education of their children.
? There was a free feeding program in arid and semi arid areas.
? The public was sensitized on the role of different stakeholders in free primary education
? Funding for school development was decentralized such that it would be received directly by the schools for improvement of infrastructure.
? There was an accounting and reporting system of expenditure – head of schools had to explain how they have used the free primary education funds.
? Educational development partners provided financial support.
? Constituency Development Fund (CDF) helped to put up physical facilities such as classrooms
? Effort was made to make education accessible to all including the girl child.


Countries were expected to achieve the following goals by 2015:
? Eradication of extreme poverty and anger
? Achievement of universal primary education
? Promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women
? Improvement of maternal health and reduction of child motality\
? Fight HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and other killer diseases
? Environmental sustainability
? Development of a global partnership for development

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